ARRIVES AT SYDNEY COVE
HORRIFYING CONDITIONS says Chaplain Johnson
Long awaited ships from England have arrived bringing with them a load of problems far outweighing their aid to the Colony. Lady Juliana, arrived June 3, 1790, was found to carry not food but female convicts, mainly elderly and infirm. Justinian, arrived June 20, brought food and news that the principal store ship, Guardian, had foundered off the Cape of Good Hope.
The ships carried the first detachment of the New South Wales Corps to replace the Marines whose officers object to performing civilian or judicial duties. The Corps, under command of Captain Nicholas Nepean, has among its officers Captain Hill, Lieut. Edward Abbott and Lieut. John Macarthur.
Much indignant comment has been aroused by conditions aboard the ships. For the long journey from Home 1200 convicts were packed into them. The ships are under the charter from private contractors who cut rations to starvation limits and neglect cleanliness in order to save money and increase their profits.
The Chaplain, Rev. Richard Johnson, who boarded the transports on arrival and denounced the conditions he saw as horrifying. Convicts lay between decks almost naked and lacking bedding and beds. Many were in irons. Scurvy, dysentery and fever were rife. Rev. Johnson saw poor, fettered wretches die before his eyes. The bodies were thrown overboard and allowed to lie upon the rocks.
His Excellency, Governor Phillip has severely censured the commanders of the transports and ordered all bodies to be buried on the north shore. The sick have been accommodated in hospital and in emergency hospital tents. There are 488 persons receiving attention: 267 are reported dead on the voyage.
Article taken from the First Fleet Folio November 1996
The Second Fleet: the six ships which sailed from England to New South Wales in 1789-1790, comprised the
Lady Juliana, Convict Transport. Master George Aitken. Departed England 29 July 1789, arriving Sydney Cove 3 June 1790.
HMS Guardian, Royal Navy Storeship. Commander, Lieutenant Edward Riou. Departed England 14 September 1789. After a brief call at Teneriffe the Guardian reached Table Bay, Cape of Good Hope on 24 November 1789. Following purchasing live-stock and plants the Guardian sailed for New South Wales on 11 December, but was never to reach her destination, having been damaged on a large underwater ice-berg on 24 December. The Captain nursed the ship back to Table Bay. It was accessed as unseaworthy, and eventually beached and abandoned.
Justinian Storeship. Master Benjamin Maitland. Departed England 28 June 1789, arriving Sydney Cove 15 April 1790.
Neptune, Convict Transport, Master Donald Trail. Departed England 19 January 1790, arriving Sydney Cove 26 June 1790.
Scarborough, Convict Transport. Master John Marshall. Departed England 19 January 1790 arriving Sydney Cove 28 June 1790. Second voyage for Scarborough and the ship’s Captain John Marshall.
Surprize, Convict Transport. Master Nicholas Anstis. Departed England 19 January 1790, arriving Sydney Cove 26 June 1790. Second voyage for Nicholas Anstis who had been First Mate on Lady Penrhyn.
The Second Fleet Ships returned to London in and around September 1791
DID YOU KNOW?
Convict men and women off the First Fleet and Second Fleet married: just to mention a few
Edward Kimberley to Mary Cavenaugh (Lady Juliana)
Matthew Everingham to Elizabeth Rymes (Neptune)
Bartholomew Reardon to Hannah Rowney (Lady Juliana)
James Ruse to Elizabeth Perry (Lady Juliana)
William Blunt to Ann Owston (Lady Juliana)
Patrick Burn to Mary Newton (Lady Juliana)
John Rowe to Isabella Manson (Lady Juliana)
James Paynter to Sarah Manning (Lady Juliana)
William Knight (Neptune) to Amelia/Mary Levy
Convict Joseph Morley was a cousin to First Fleet Joseph Morley, and in October 1797 he was an employee of First Fleet convict Robert Sidaway.
Aboard the Second Fleet were 10 Soldiers’ Wives, 12 Soldiers’ Children, 25 Free Children, and 6 Convict Wives
Flynn, Michael, The Second Fleet
Gillen, Mollie, The Founders of Australia