Thomas Warton observed two young men walking down Theobalds Road, London on a summers evening in June 1784, carrying a load of lead on their shoulders. Thinking it was an unreasonable hour for this type of activity, Warton reported them to a watchman on duty. Both gave chase and after a struggle the young men were taken into custody.
A month later, on Wednesday 7 July 1784, William Butler and ANDREW GOODWIN stood accused in the Justice Hall of the Old Bailey court for feloniously stealing two hundred pounds weight lead, value 20 shillings, the property of Thomas Wells.
Tried by the London Jury, before Mr Recorder and taken in shorthand by E Hodgson, Andrew and William could not envisage the dramatic changes that were to take place in their lives as the indictment was read.
Thomas Warton sworn: I live in Theobalds road, on 22nd of June, about 10 minutes before ten, the two prisoners passed me as I stood at my shop door, loaded with lead on their shoulders, the aspect of the prisoners, and the unreasonable hour of carrying lead in the street, gave me the strongest reason to suppose, they stole it, the candles of the shop gave a full light of the prisoners, I determined to give charge of them if the watchman was at his stand. I did so, the watchman run after them and found them, I took one with the lead on his shoulders, the other was about twenty yards farther with the lead on his head, he endeavoured to throw the lead upon me, but a person came by and assisted me, and the prisoners were taken with the load upon them, and carried to the watch house, one of the prisoners, Butler as the watchman told me, flung out of his pockets these instruments, a pick-lock and turn screws which the constable gave into my possession; in the morning the owner came and owned the lead, I know the piece of lead which will be produced; this is the lead found on the prisoners.
Robert Weichsell sworn: I know no more than that is the lead which was cut from the building, the carpenter and I cut it up, and I marked it up and the figure was on, I can swear it to be the property of Thomas Wells.
–Gross sworn: I also cut the lead, and know it to be the property of Thomas Wells.
John Duck sworn: I am a watchman, I stopped the prisoners by the information of Mr Warton they had the lead in their possession, it is here. (The lead produced and deposed to by Weishsell, and Gross).
Prisoner Butler’s Defence: Coming along Theobald’s road, we met a tall man, and he asked to give him a spell, I asked him what that was, he said help me with this to Gray’s Inn Lane, and I will give you a pot of beer and 6d. I took one bit and the other prisoner took two, when I came to the watchhouse they shewed me a parcel of things like keys, and they said that they belonged to me; I knew nothing of them, I have a sick mother to provide for, I have been long out of work.
Andrew and William spent the next two months, possibly in Newgate Prison as it stood adjacent to the Old Bailey Courthouse, before being transferred aboard the Censor Hulk at Woolwich on 6 September 1784. Both gave their age as 17.[iii] Here they were employed in dock labour and such like for the next three years until a decision was reached on their transportation.
The practice of banishing undesirables had a long history in England. Prisoners transported under this system were sent to the Americas until the Revolution of 1775 ended this traffic. The British Government was then forced to look for alternative ways of handling the thousands of felons awaiting disposal in the many rotting hulks.
By the last weeks of August 1786 a decision had been made to establish a colony in New South Wales, Lord Sydney, Secretary of the Home Department, had written to the Admiralty:
The several goals and places for the confinement of felons in this kingdom being in so crowded a state that the greatest danger is to be apprehended, not only from their escape, but from infectious distempers, which may hourly be expected to break amongst them . I am, there-fore, commanded to signify to your Lordships his Majesty’s pleasure that you do forthwith take such measures as may be necessary for providing a proper number of vessels for the conveyance of 750 convicts to Botany Bay, together with such provisions, necessaries, and implements for agriculture as may be necessary for their use after their arrival.(iv). Captain Arthur Phillip R.N. was commissioned to govern the colony.
By September, three storeships and five transports had been assembled at Deptford. Numerous delays caused by bureaucratic incompetence in acquiring provisions, disputes among the seamen, and considerable time in fitting out the transports postponed the date of sailing. Some of the ships embarked convicts in the Thames then moved to Portsmouth where the other ships were loading.
Warrants had been made out ordering named convicts to be delivered to the transports from the hulks. On the 24 February 1787 Andrew was one of 149 convicts from the Censor Hulk to be placed in a waggon for a three day journey to Portsmouth. On the 27 February Andrew boarded the Scarborough there to wait another three months before the fleet set sail.[v]
Scarborough was barque-rigged, that is, she had square sails on her main and foremast with fore-and-aft sails on her mizzen, or rearmost mast. As soon as she arrived in Portsmouth it was discovered that her prison fittings were so flimsy that they would not have held a child, let alone a convict, so they all had to be taken out and replaced. The Scarborough was four years old, and was named after the town in Yorkshire where it was built.[vi]
On Thursday morning 5 April 1787, as preparations were underway for the departure of the fleet, two young women stood in the courtroom at Kingston-on Thames in South London and listened as an indictment was read to the court, for a crime they committed on 30 October 1786.
The Jurors for our Lord the King upon their Oath present That Ann Forbes late of the Parish of Saint Olave within the Borough of Southwark in the County of Surrey, Spinster and LYDIA MONRO late of the same Spinster, on the twenty eighth day of October in the twenty seventh Year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George the Third (1786) now King of Great Britain &c with force and arms at the Parish aforesaid Ten yards of Printed Cotton of the Value of twenty Shillings of the Goods and Chattels of James Rolison in the shop of said James Rolison then and there being found privately and feloniously did steal take and carry away against the peace of our said Lord the King his Crown and Dignity.[vii]
A handwritten note, scribbled across the top of the indictment notice indicates the result of the trial –
Guilty, No Chattels, To be Hanged [viii]
Indictment Notice for Ann Forbes and Lydia Monro ASS135/227/7
Returned to prison, the girls waited two weeks before a decision was reached on their fate. When it did come on the 17 April 1787, Ann and Lydia learnt their death sentences had been commuted to transportation. Ann was given seven years while Lydia received a fourteen year sentence. They were ordered on the 28 April from Southwark goal to Newgate Prison to join a group of women convicts being sent to Portsmouth for embarkation on 3 May, aboard the transport ship Prince of Wales.[ix]
Thieves, although often sentenced to death, were very rarely executed; they were transported instead. The goods they had stolen often appear to be of comparatively little value, but here the indictment can be misleading, for since nearly all thefts carried the same penalty, there was no need to prove in court more than a single, and possibly rather trivial offence. Goods were often undervalued, so that the criminal, if convicted, would escape the death penalty.[x] Andrew and Lydia were among the 90 per cent of First Fleeters who were guilty of theft.[xi]
The Prince of Wales of 350 tons was the last ship to join the fleet when the Admiralty discovered that there were not enough ships to transport the 750 convicts. She was the newest vessel in the Fleet, less than five months old, and was distinguished by her poop-deck and galleries that overhung her quarters or rear sides.[xii]
It is believed, Lydia was the child whose birth was registered in The British Lying-in Hospital Endell St Holburn. Details from their records:
Date of admission 26 October 1767. MONRO, Sarah wife of Alexander (no occupation or parish noted, as in many cases)
Time of reckoning – end October. Came in 26th Oct.
Delivered 27th October – Girl, baptized 29th October – LETTICE. Discharged 15th November. Recommenders name, E. Germain.[xiii]
Lying in Hospitals was often patronized by women living away from home. This may have been a reason why Sarah was admitted to the Lying-in Hospital as Monro (Munro) is a well known Scottish name and possibly Scotland her original home.
Nothing is known on the early life of Lydia, even her occupation was not recorded during her three trials. At the age of nineteen she was caught shoplifting (maybe Lydia had been shoplifting previously, but never been catch) but Lydia was at the Old Bailey on the 31 May 1786 for Theft ‘grand larceny’ with Catherine McCord; both being indicted for feloniously stealing, on the 5th day of May last, one pair of women’s stuff shoes, valued 2s 6d, the property of Archibald Smith. Tried by the second Middlesex Jury before Mr Rose, both were found not guilty.[xiv]
And again on the same day, this time with two other girls Phebe Flawty and Catherine Moreing, who were indicted for feloniously stealing, on the 15th day of May last, thirteen yards of thread lace, value 13s and eighteen yards of sick lace, value 12s, the property of Isaac Brown, privily in his shop :
And Richard Chapman and Ann Draveman were indicted for feloniously receiving the same, knowing them to be stolen.
There being no evidence, but that of an accomplice, the prisoners were All Acquitted.[xv]
The third time Lydia was before the courts for shoplifting, she was found guilty and sentenced to be hanged. Later the verdict was changed to transportation with a sentence of 14 years, but her partner in crime Ann Forbes received only 7 years. Lydia being the elder of the two girls and her appearances before the Old Bailey were possibly the reasons for the heavier sentence.
Andrew’s background is just as elusive as Lydia’s. A christening for an Andrew Goodwin was recorded in 1767 in Leek Staffordshire, parents Samuel and Mary (Weller) Goodwin. Other family members were James, Lucy and Mary.[xvi] These names were given to Andrew and Lydia’s children, although their father’s names of Alexander and Samuel were never acknowledged.
On 13 May 1787 the First Fleet set sail from Portsmouth. Andrew and Lydia had an uneventful passage except for the bouts of seasickness and cramped quarters that affected all the convicts. The fleet took on fresh water and supplies from Tenerife, Rio de Janiero and the Cape of Good Hope. On the final leg of the journey the ships encountered the worst possible weather conditions. They were hit by squalls and storms for several days with mountainous seas which frequently broke over the tops decks. Conditions on board the Prince of Wales were particularly bad as Surgeon White, in his journal noted,I visited the Prince of Wales, where I found some of the female convicts with evident symptoms of the scurvy, brought on by the damp and cold weather we had lately experienced.(xvii)
By 20 January 1788 the fleet was safely anchored in Botany Bay after an epic journey of 15,000 miles which had taken eight months. Captain Phillip found Botany Bay unsuitable for the first settlement and chose instead Port Jackson. On the 26 January 1788 the transports and store ships, attended by the Sirius finally evacuated Botany Bay, and in a very short time they were all assembled in Sydney Cove.
At first light working parties of male convicts were brought ashore to chop down trees and grub up roots, pitch tents, unload provisions, build a blacksmiths forge or tend the animals. For some of the convicts it was the first time they had stood on land for more than a year. Arthur Symth noted the progress This morning by day light a long boat full of convicts from the Scarborough were set on shore to assist in cutting down trees and clearing the ground. Thermometer at 74.
The women did not disembark until the 6 February when a muster was taken the numbers amounted to 1030 persons. Arthur Symth reported – The men convicts got to the women very soon after they landed and it is beyond my abilities to give a just description of the scene of debauchery and riot that ensued. (xviii)
Six months after their arrival, being Saturday, 13 September, a convict named William Boggis appeared in Court before David Collins and John Hunter, accused by Lydia Munro of wanting to have connexion with her against her will.[xix] John Owen was charged with aiding and assisting the alleged offence.
Lydia Munro informs that Yesterday Afternoon on leaving work, she went over the Hill on the West Side to bathe herself being very warm – accompanied by Elizabeth Cole – that they met the Prisoner and John Owen – who followed them – that she told them to go home, for their Company was not wanted – that they persisted in following them – that the Prisoner said to Owen he would have Connexion with her before he went Home – that on hearing this she and Elizabeth Cole were returning Home, as they could not get quit of them – that the Prisoner threw her down in the Woods among the Bushes – saying he would have connexion with her – she told him to go away, as she would have him punished – that he persisted in his Attempt to have connexion with her – that on her (crying) out a Man came to her Assistance who drove him away – that Cole was standing by and that Owen was endeavouring to keep her off.
Elizabeth Cole informs to the same … as Munro, with the addition of her receiving a Blow from Owen – That Munro cried out and did every thing that lay in her power to resist Boggis.
Daniel Gordon informs that hearing Munro cry out Murder he went to her Assistance – that he found the Prisoner laying upon her – that he struck him with his Stick and told him to “Get up” – that (Munro’s) Petticoats were half up.
The Prisoner Boggis says that it is unlikely he would want to have Connexion with a Woman when there were two or three other People present.
Boggis was found guilty and sentenced to receive one hundred lashes while Owen received fifty lashes for his part. A notation to the transcript states ‘Afterwards forgive’. The Court met again on Saturday 20 September when Boggis convinced the magistrates that Lydia Munro and Elizabeth Cole were considered prostitutes by other convicts. Both men were acquitted.[xx] It is conjecture whether Lydia and Elizabeth were prostitutes as stated by Boggis, as most convict women suffered ruthless sexual exploitation.[xxi] Daniel/Janel Gordon, who saved Lydia from being raped, was a black man, who had been sentenced to seven years transportation for theft.[xxii]
There is no further record of Lydia until Sunday 19 July 1789, when her daughter Mary was christened. Andrew Goodwin was named as the father.[xxiii] On Tuesday 2 March 1790 Andrew and Lydia were married in the make-shift church of St Philips Sydney Cove, by the Fleet’s Chaplain Reverend Richard Johnson, in the presence of Richard and Elizabeth Hawkes. Both signed with an X.[xxiv]
On 14 February 1788, when the new colony was only three weeks old, the Supply sailed for Norfolk Island with Philip Gidley King in charge of a small detachment of marines and convicts. By 6 March the Supply had unloaded provisions and people in Sydney Bay to lay the foundations for a settlement.
In October 1788 Captain John Hunter was ordered to take the Sirius to the Cape of Good Hope for provisions. He safely returned to Port Jackson loaded with flour and wheat. Although this voyage had helped the settlement from starvation, in early January 1790 Phillip noted that all goods would be exhausted by May that year. On 14 February 1790 the order was given for the Sirius to prepare for a trip to China to purchase supplies. It was agreed that Norfolk Island was in a better position to support people than Port Jackson so a substantial number of soldiers and convicts were to be transferred.[xxv] Two days after they were married, Andrew, Lydia (or Letitia as she was liked to be called) with six month old Mary were among 161 convicts and their children who boarded Sirius bound for Norfolk Island.[xxvi]
Accompanied by the Supply both ships reached Norfolk Island on 13 March but, due to unfavourable weather conditions, could not enter Sydney Bay where the main settlement was located. They sailed around to Cascade Bay on the northern side of the island, and over the next few days were able to unload the convicts, marines and some of the stores. With provisions and children the new arrivals had a very difficult walk to reach Sydney Bay.
The Supply and Sirius sailed back to Sydney Bay where disaster struck on 19 March, when the Sirius was wrecked as she started unloading the remainder of her cargo, miraculously there was no loss of life. The wreck of the Sirius increased the population of the island to some five hundred people;[xxvii] this was a time of near starvation for both the settlements. On Norfolk Island the mass killing of the Bill Hill Mutton Bird – called Bird of Providence – provided meat for the table.[xxviii]
An eventful year for Andrew and Lydia was 1791, as they celebrated the birth of their second daughter Sarah (xxix) and Andrew obtained one acre of land at Sydney Bay. Of that acre he had cleared 52 rods and was the owner of a sow which produced six piglets, allowing the family to support themselves in meat.[xxx] In the May of 1791, William Walsh was working for Andrew on jobbing work.[xxxi] By the December Andrew had expanded his land to twelve acres at Creswell Bay (Lot No.98). Andrew had served his seven year sentence and his status was `Late Convict’.
In January 1792 he was employing convict Robert Scattergood as labourer, and selling provisions and stores. By October 1793 he had nine acres sown in grain. The land was hilly but all ploughable.[xxxii] When a record was taken during 1794 on the occupations of 83 residents, Andrew was listed as a farmer.[xxxiii] In official documents Andrew’s surname was recorded as Goodwin/Gooding/Gooden.
Convict children were usually mustered under their mother’s name, even if the mother was married. Lydia gave birth to a son they named John in September 1794.[xxxiv]
When the Daedalus departed for Sydney on 6 November 1794 Lydia was on board with John.[xxxv] Where they stayed, or how they lived in Sydney until Andrew had disposed of the land in the November is not known. Andrew was not the only settler to give up his land during 1794. They were very dissatisfied with the Government for refusing to accept their second crop of Maize. The store held three years supply, and the settlers were advised to sow as much Wheat and raise as many Swine that was possible during the following year. Wheat was a more expensive crop to cultivate than Maize, and the settlers would not have received sufficient remuneration for their hard work. The uncertainty of the weather and the destruction from grubs, caterpillars and insects made it an uncertain crop.[xxxvi] Andrew joined Lydia with the two girls arriving in Sydney aboard the Fanny in March 1795.[xxxvii]
During the next four months a decision was made to return to Norfolk Island. Andrew departed Sydney for the last time on Fanny in July 1795. This ship carried a cargo of rice and it also took the Rev Marsden to “marry and baptise such as stood in need of those rites“.[xxxviii] Lydia and the three children followed, arriving 31 October on the Supply. Andrew and Lydia were never to see Sydney again. As there was no means of supporting themselves until Andrew acquired more land they received rations until 31 December.[xxxix]
Andrew was granted a prime sixty acre (Lot 64) on Middlegate and Queen Elizabeth Roads Norfolk Island where they lived until 1802.[xl] It was recorded on 31 December 1798 that Andrew Goodwin, settler received eight pounds in payment from the Government for Maize.[xli]
On 1 May 1796 a James Trippett leased 23 acres (Lot 85) at Queensborough. The rent was one pound per year for 14 years commencing from 31 August 1796. The land was disposed of – “Sold by lessee to Robert Anderson, Gentleman, for 70 pounds on the 27 February 1802 and by him to Andrew Goodwin on 26 August 1802. George Jeninson being entitled to hold two acres by certificate dated 30 December 1801. Torn up the 5 October 1821. This was signed by F. Goulburn”.[xlii]
Obtaining live stock from the Government Stores for his farm, Andrew signed a voucher with an X on 2 August 1804 for receipts given in payment for Swines. Total weight 795 lbs. Rate 5d.[xliii]
During February 1805 a census was taken of all people residing on Norfolk Island, lists of occupations were also included. Andrew’s status was free of servitude, sentence expired and his occupation was settler/landowner. He was “off the stores”. Lydia still not registered under her married name was listed with Women from sentences expired “off the stores”. Andrew and Lydia were supporting eight children, they were registered under the surname of Munro(e). “Off the stores” were Sarah, James, Lucinda, Margaret, Maria, Mary, Elizabeth and John.[xliv] Settlers who laboured for themselves and provided no service to the government were “off the stores”. They could in turn request the services of a particular convict who would then be taken “off the stores”.
The main crops grown on Norfolk Island were wheat and maize. Farmers also reared Swine for their flesh which was salted or sold as fresh pork. A memorial was written from the settlers and landholders to Captain John Piper Commandant on 12 December 1806. They stressed that due to the scarcity of the previous year’s crop, and expectations that the approaching harvest would by its promising abundance amply compensate for their experienced distresses. Unfortunately the wheat crop turned out unproductive as did the maize which was needed for the feeding of their Swine. They were worried that there would be difficulties in the liquidation of their debts to the Government and to individuals unless the prices of grain and Swines flesh were enhanced to the following sums: ten shillings per bushel for wheat, five shillings for maize and six pence per pound of swine’s flesh. The memorial was duly signed by the settlers and landholders. A high proportion could sign their name the remainder including Andrew Goodwin signed their mark with an X.
Andrew and Lydia must have felt devastated when the news started to circulate that all Norfolk Islanders would have to vacate their island home for Van Diemen’s Land or New South Wales. Andrew was established on his 23 acres, 14 1/4 as yet to be cleared. His house was shingled, boarded and two floors. It was 20 ft long by 12 feet. There was also a large barn boarded and floored and one outhouse boarded and thatched.[xlv]
The muster taken of settlers and landholders on 2 August 1807 records Andrew Goodwin has having 23 acres; 3 in wheat, 9 in maize, nil barley etc. 11 pasture, 15 male dogs, 15 female. In hand – 280 bushels maize. He was supporting himself, wife and 7 children “off the stores”, and employed one free man.[xlvi] Their eldest daughter Mary had departed the island on 16 February 1807 aboard the Venus with William Fletcher.[xlvii]
There were many reasons attached to the closing of Norfolk Island which was written in a lengthy note from Major Foveaux on 26 March 1805. Foveaux’s views were accepted over those of King and when Bligh arrived at Port Jackson he had very explicit instructions to evacuate the whole of the Norfolk Island community, together with the full details of compensation to be awarded. The settlers and other inhabitants were to be divided into two Classes –
The First to consist of discharged Seamen and Marines.
The Second which covered the Goodwin family was to consist of persons who have formerly been Convicts, but who have conducted themselves with propriety, or who have large families. And the third to comprehend the remainder of the Inhabitants…Those of the second Class were victualled and clothed, for two years at the Public Expense, and to be allowed the labour of two Convicts for the same period.[xlviii]
Andrew was amongst a list of settlers to receive a General Order on 17 September 1807 stating that he, his wife and seven children were to be removed to Port Dalrymple or Hobart Town.[xlix]
Norfolk Island Founders Day 6 March 1991
(from left) June Tobin, Jodie Mason, Kevin Richardson, Rick Stonehouse, Bill Frost,
Cheryl Timbury (H Timbury)
On 9 November 1807 the Lady Nelson sailed from Norfolk Island with the first group of settlers to be relocated at the Derwent. This was followed by the Porpoise which departed on 26 December 1807. Included in the 182 settlers were Andrew, Lydia who was pregnant, and their seven children.[l] It is believed the children were Sarah, James, Lucinda, Margaret, Maria, Elizabeth. The seventh child was either John or Ann.
To the infant settlement of Hobart Town the arrival of settlers had a dramatic effect on the community. Food supplies were so low that kangaroos were being killed for meat issues from the Store. The settlers were ill-clad with clothing for the severe weather conditions of the Derwent, and it had been understood that they would be clothed by the Government. Temporary housing was offered with the inhabitants, together with tools to assist them in erecting shelters on their allotted land.[li] Lydia’s daughter was born five months after arrival and given the name Letitia Munrow.[lii] Reference has been made to another daughter Ann Goodwin born c 1805 on Norfolk Island. No baptismal record can be traced; she is listed on the 1822 Hobart Town Muster as being Born in the Colony along with Elizabeth, Lucy and Maria.[liii]
The Norfolk Islanders received land both up and down the river from Hobart. By April 1809 Andrew was farming a prime 46 acre property at Clarence Plains/Roaches Bay in partnership with emancipist William Hawkins.[liv] The land was later shown on the map as being owned by Edward Garth and Andrew Goodwin. The property was successful and the road north from the site is still called Goodwins Road. This property was also the birth place of their last child Andrew in August 1811; he was to use the surname Gooding in adult life.[lv]
A Return of Settlers who have been convicts and are at present in His Majesty’s Settlement Hobart Town River Derwent, Van Diemen’s Land, and one of the Dependencies of the Territory of New South Wales from General Muster held the 21 day of March 1811 and also at Norfolk Island on the 6 day of August 1811 and of Port Dalrymple on the 30 June 1811.[lvi]
Andrew Gooden By What Ship arrived – Scarboro’
When and Where Convicted – 1784 Middlesex
Sentence 7 years – At Hobart Town
General Muster of the whole of the free men, women and children, Off and On the stores in his Majesty’s settlement at Hobart Town, Van Diemen’s Land, under the immediate inspection of His Honour Lieut. Governor Sorell assisted by Mr ACTG. Deputy Assist. Commy. General Archer commencing on the 7 Sept ending on 2 Oct 1818 inclusive [lvii]
No 397 Andrew Goodwin Ship of Arrival – Scarborough
Master’s Name – Marshall
Convicted Where – London When – 1789
Sentence 7 years – Off Stores
Norfolk Island Resident
No 486 Jas Goodwin Born at N.I.- Off Stores N.I. Res.
|No. 166 L. Munro||Off Stores||Norfolk Island Resident|
|116 Miss Goodwin||Off Stores||Norfolk Island Resident|
|119 Eliz.Goodwin||Off Stores||Norfolk Island Resident|
|Three Children||Off Stores||N.I. Parent|
|No 83 L Munro|
Andrew was described as an “Old Settler” in the Burials in the Parish of St David’s in the County of Buckingham in the year 1835 register. He was buried on 4 August 1835 in St David’s Burial Ground, having died on 1 August. Andrew’s age is given as 79; if he had been born in 1766/7 in Leek Staffordshire his age at death was 68/9.
Lydia had been legally married to Andrew for 45 years and a widow for 21 years, when as a elderly frail lady she passed away on 29 June 1856, aged 85 (was 89) from ‘Decay of Nature’ at the home of her daughter Maria Everall.[lviii]
The burial service for Letitia (as shown on the Death Certificate) was held in the Anglican church of St David’s on 4 July after which she joined Andrew in St David’s Burial Ground. It is not known if there was ever a headstone, as in 1926 the burial ground was made into a park and all the surviving headstones were mounted on a memorial wall.
It would be nice to think there were numerous family members at Lydia’s wake to toast a remarkable woman who had a long and sometimes turbulent life, following the death notices that were inserted in the local newspapers.
The Hobart Town Courier – Tuesday 1 July 1856
On Sunday, the 29th instant, Mrs Letitia Goodwin, aged 85, after a long and protracted illness. The deceased was a very old colonist, having arrived here upwards of forty years ago. The funeral will start from her daughter’s (Mrs Everall), late the Birmingham Arms, Murray Street on Thursday, at half-past one o’clock.
The Launceston Examiner – Thursday 3 July 1856
On Sunday at Hobart Town, Mrs Letitia Goodwin, aged 85. The deceased arrived in the colony upwards of forty years ago.
Lydia/Letitia Munro Goodwin was the second last known survivor of the First Fleet as Elizabeth Thackery died in the August of 1856; two months later. Ann Forbes, Lydia’s criminal partner died on 28 December 1851 at Lower Portland Head (Sackville Reach) NSW.
Fast forward to 29 November 1992 (136 years after Lydia’s death) when descendants and friends stood in St. David’s Park for the unveiling and dedication of the ‘The Pioneer Islanders’ Memorial Cairn. The Cairn is a tribute to the First Fleeters and Settlers from the first Norfolk Island settlement to Van Diemen’s Land 1804-1820. The pioneers who are listed on the Cairn represent an important chapter in the history of the early settlement and development of Tasmania.
Listed with the Porpoise settlers are Andrew Goodwin, Lydia Munro and their seven children Ann, Elizabeth, James, Lucy, Margaret, Maria and Sarah.
After this ceremony, Goodwin/Munro descendants gathered around two plaques which had been placed on the memorial wall near their daughter Maria Everall’s headstone. A short dedication service was taken by the Dean of Hobart. The bronze plaques were paid for by descendants. The arrangements regarding the wording and installation was organised by the Fellowship of First Fleeters in NSW. Hence their name is inscribed along with:
Andrew Goodwin Lydia Goodwin
Arrived First Fleet nee Munro
26.1.1788 Arrived First Fleet
Died 4.8.1835 26.1.1788
The Fellowship of First Fleeters erected a stone monument in St. David’s Park, for Australia’s Bicentenary in 1988. The wording on the bronze plaque reads:
This Plaque is dedicated to the memory
of those who arrived in this country with
Captain Arthur Phillip on the First Fleet
in 1788 and were buried hereby
Cheryl TIMBURY 1996
The postscript to this story pertains to Tasmania’s Bi-Centenary Weekend 20 – 22 February 2004. Being part of the historical events was the Dedication on Sunday 22 February of the Convict Brick Trail in High Street Campbell Town. (A Convict name is etched on a brick which is purchased by a descendant who is then issued with a Title Certificate for the land on which the brick sits).
Bricks are there for Andrew Goodwin and Lydia Munro with the wording:
Andrew Goodwin Lydia Munro
Age 17 Age 19
Porpoise 1808 Prince of Wales 1788
Stole Lead 7 yrs married Andres (sic) Goodwin
First Fleet to Sydney
The brick for Andrew was placed next to his son-in-law Robert Frost; next to him is William Wright, the husband of a grand-daughter. Further down the trail is a brick to another son-in-law Mark Ashby Bunker.
Andrew and Lydia’s names have been etched into living history.
[i] Cobley, J, The Crimes of the First Fleet Convicts, Sydney, Angus & Robertson Ltd. 1970, p.45, 105.
O.B.S.P., 1783-84 p.929 Trial No. 696.
[ii] Ibid. p.1029.
Appears in Council No.2 p.11(a); Ross’s Returns
(Goodwine), p.240; Richards’s Returns, p.266; H.O. 11/1, p.6.
[iii] Gillen, M, The Founders of Australia, Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1989, p.144.
[iv] Forster, I. Guilty, No Chattels, To Be Hanged, NSW, Ian Forster, 1991. p.14.
[v] Gillen, op.cit., p.144.
[vi] Butler, R, 258 Days to Sydney Cove North Ryde, Education Business & Laws Publishers, 1984.
[vii] Cobley, op.cit., pp.94, 196.
(1) P.R.O. Assizes 31/15, p.51, no.20;
(2) P.R.O. Assizes 35/227, no.20.
Appears in Ross’s Returns, p.328.
[viii] PRO London, ASS135/227/7.
[ix] Gillen, op.cit., p.258.
Ibid., records a 14 year sentence.
PRO London, Reel 419, HO13/4, 786, 25 March –13 December 1787. Ann Forbes 7 years Lydia Monro 14 years.
Cobley, op.cit., records a 7 year sentence
[x] Unknown details, The Settlers, English, p.371.
[xii] Butler, R, 258 Days to Sydney Cove.
[xiii] British Lying Hospital RG8/57, Vol.6, No. 7774.
[xiv] Proceedings of the Old Bailey, Reference Number t17860531-68
[xv] Proceedings of the Old Bailey, Reference Number t17860531-64
[xvi] IGI for Staffordshire, England.
[xvii] Forster, op.cit., p.25.
[xviii] King, J, The First Settlement, South Melbourne, The Macmillan Co. of Australia Pty. Ltd., 1984
[xix] AONSW., Bench of Magistrates, Sydney, February 1788 to January 1792, COD 17, p.92.
Heney, H. Australia’s Founding Mothers, Melbourne Thomas Nelson Aust. Ltd., 1978, pp,42, and 256.
[xxii] Gillen, op.cit., p.145.
(xxiii] Cobley, J, Sydney Cove 1789 – 1790 Vol.11 p.71.
[xxiv] Ibid. p.158.
N.S.W., Registration of Marriages P78143/79 BS No.7, Vol. 4 & 4A.
[xxv] Wright, R, The Forgotten Generation of Norfolk Island and Van Diemen’s Land, Sydney,
Library of Australian History, 1986.
[xxvi] M.L., Norfolk Island Victualling Book A1958, pp.54b, 74b, 79b.
[xxvii] Wright, op.cit., pp.12,14
[xxix] M.L., Norfolk Island Victualling Book A1958, p.75b – Sar’h Munro Born Dec 1st 1791.
[xxx] Gillen, op.cit.,p.144
[xxxi] Ibid, p.370
[xxxii] PRO., Reel 4-5 CO 201/9
[xxxiii] Wright, op.cit., p.60.
[xxxiv] M.L., Norfolk Island Victualling Book. A 1958, p. – Jno Munro Born Sept 1794
[xxxv] M.L., Norfolk Island Victualling Book.
[xxxvi] Ibid., King PG-Journal Norfolk Island, 1791-4, p.565
[xxxvii] M.L., Norfolk Island Victualling Book
[xxxviii] Ibid., p.40 on Convicts.
[xxxix] Ibid., pp.61b, 83a, 83b.
[xl] Wright, op.cit., p.68.
[xli] M.L., op.cit Kings Papers
[xlii] Grants by Governor Hunter 1797 Bk2B, p.95
[xliii] AONSW., Ref. 4/1167A 1794-1806, Reel 762, p.179
[xliv] Ibid., pp.259, 263, 271.
James b NI c1796;
Lucy b NI 18.3.1798 NSW BDM No.20 Vol: 4A;
Margaret b NI 7.1.1800
Maria b NI 18.2.1802, No.19 Vol: 4A;
Elizabeth b NI 9.9.1803, No.69 Vol: 4A.
[xlv] Ibid., AC.4/1167B No.27.
[xlvi] M.L., AO.4/1168B Reel 763, P.107 No.13.
[xlvii] Ibid., AO.4/1168A Reel 763, p.131.
(xlviii] Ibid., Norfolk Island Papers – Piper to Bligh.
[xlix] Wright, op.cit., pp.97,98,99,100.
[l] Ibid., Ref. 4/1168B 1808-1810 p.107
M.L., Shipping Lists, N.I. Records Reel 763
[li] Wright, op.cit.,
[lii] AOT., Baptisms, RGD 42/1808.
[liii] Ibid., 1822 Hobart Town Muster W1822.
Lord R., Inscriptions in Stone. St. David’s Burial Ground, 1804-1872, p.57, registered under Ulmer.
[liv] Ibid., PRO., Reel 26 CO201/26
[lv] Ibid., Marriage Andrew Gooding to Lydia Hynes
3 March 1834, District of Campbell Town, No.9.
[lvi] Latrobe Library, AJCP
[lvii] AONSW., Ref.4/1235.2.
[lviii] AOT., Deaths in the District of Hobart 1856 No.832/3084
AJCP Australian Joint Copying Program
AONSW Archives Office of New South Wales
AOT Archives Office of Tasmania
IGI International Genealogical Index
ML Mitchell Library Sydney NSW
PRO Public Record Office
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